边境牧羊犬标准 ·

边境牧羊犬的4个类型 Border Collie Breed Information

Border Collie Breed Information
边境牧羊犬 犬种的资料
by Kelly Whiteman
由Kelly Whiteman 编写
由    黑白子        翻译
    Border Collies originated in the border area between Scotland and England.  Often called the world’s premiere sheepherding dogs, Border Collies are renowned for their ability to move sheep in a silent and controlled manner, all at the will of their masters.  Border Collies control stock by using their “eye,” which has been described as “the ability to control stock by staring at them in a fixed and steady manner.”  Although their history is unrecorded, it is commonly accepted that they developed from crosses between the Roman drover dogs and the progenitors of the Finnish Spitz.  As time went on, the dogs were also crossed with other working and sporting breeds, including beardies, setters, pointers and sight hounds.
 
边境牧羊犬原产自苏格兰与英格兰的边境地带,通常认为世界上最杰出的牧羊犬。
边境牧羊犬以它的牧羊方式博得称赞,它可以按照主人的意图用它特有的“眼神”静悄悄地牧羊,
它的“眼神”被描写为“用凝视的目光把羊赶得溜溜的”。
虽然边境牧羊犬的确切起源没有历史纪录,但普遍已接受它们是由罗马牲畜贩子的狗和芬兰猎犬
杂交出来的狗种,且随着时间的推移它们的血统里又混杂了一些工作犬和竞技犬的血统,比如说
雪打犬、波音达犬、寻血犬等等。

Sporting breed records indicate that certain lines of pointers worked differently in the days when birds such as grouse and partridge were hunted on foot with nets, rather than with guns.  Like modern-day dogs, these particular lines were able to point to where a covey of birds was hiding in the underbrush.  But instead of flushing the prey, the dogs would circle around the perimeter of the covey, indicating to the hunters exactly where to lay their net to capture the birds.  It seems likely that Border Collies inherited not only their “eye”, but also the uncanny ability to know how far off the perimeter they need to stay in order to not disturb their “flock” from these early hunting dogs.

从竞技犬的繁育记录得知,某些波音达犬在用脚和网==(古代)捕猎鸟、松鸡、山鹑时与现在用枪
捕猎时方法是完全不一样。与现在的波音达犬一样它们能找出一群躲在灌木丛中的鸟,但不像
现在的狗一样一哄而去抢食,而是在鸟群周围围起来等待猎手们把网撒过去,把鸟们罩住。
看来边境牧羊犬从它们的祖先不仅遗传了“眼睛”,而且还遗传了离奇的能力==知道离多少距离
不会打搅自己的羊群。

Border Collies have traditionally been bred solely for working ability.  Because of the difference in terrain between the English lowlands and the Scottish highlands, farmers raised different breeds of sheep based upon their locality.  The type of stock and the surrounding topography led to different physical attributes being required for the dogs to be efficient workers.  For example, to survive in the rough hills and rocky crags of the highlands, sheep had to be light and fast. Thus, the good working dogs in the highlands tended to have long legs and lean bodies.  In contrast, the lowlands could support slower, heavier sheep.  To work these large, heavy sheep on gentler land, the dogs did not need as much speed and agility.  Instead, they needed a lower center of gravity and enough size to be able to withstand a charge from big, angry ewes defending their lambs.  Therefore, the dogs in the lowlands had shorter legs and heavier bodies.

边境牧羊犬一直以来单纯为了牧羊繁殖下来的。因为英格兰的低平地带和苏格兰的高原地带地势的
不同,牧民们养殖的羊也品种不同。羊群品种的差异和周围环境差异,需要不同体型的狗来更有效
地工作。比如,在粗糙的山和多岩石的峭壁上生存的羊不得不体重小,速度快。所以在这里牧羊的
狗倾向于瘦小身材和长腿。反之,在低平地带适合比较重一些,慢一些的羊。为了放牧这些体型
较大、重量稍重一点的羊,狗不太需要太快的速度和敏捷,而是需要重力中心底一点、足够的身材
来抵御来自保护自己羊羔的愤怒的大型绵羊的冲击。所以这一地带的狗普遍拥有较短的腿和粗壮的
身材。

    So, even though the dogs were bred for working ability (as opposed to being bred for “looks”), recognizable physical types evolved.  In her classic treatise, Key Dogs from the Border Collie Family, Sheila Grew identified four individual types within the Border Collie breed.  The types are divided by physical looks, but general working style and temperament also seem related to type.  She called them:  1) Northumbrian type; 2) Wiston Cap type; 3) Nap type; and 4) Herdman’s Tommy type.

之所以,虽然边境牧羊犬是为了工作而产生的不是为了“看”而产生的,但Sheila Grew在她的
论文“Key Dogs from the Border Collie Family”里把边境牧羊犬分为4个类型。
虽然分为4个类型,但它们的工作能力和性格基本没有本质性的差异。她把它们叫
1)Northumbrian type  -----  诺斯安布赖恩  类型
2)Wiston Cap type  -----维斯顿 盖普 类型
3)Nap type  -----  奈普 类型
4)Herdman’s Tommy type  ----- 赫德曼 汤米 类型

 

Northumbrian Type
诺斯安布赖恩 类型
   
Almost all present-day Border Collies can trace their pedigrees back to a dog known as
Old Hemp.  Hemp was born in 1894, bred and owned by Adam Telfer, who lived in the
Northumbrian region of England.  Hemp was a cross between a very strong-eyed, black ***
with a reticent temperament and a black and white tri-colored dog with loose eye and
a good natured, outgoing temperament.  Hemp was a powerful, keen worker who sired over
200 puppies.  Physically, Hemp was the epitome of the Northumbrian type:  medium-sized
with a rough coat and very little white trim.

追溯几乎目前所有的边境牧羊犬的血统都集中到一只叫Old Hemp的狗。
1894年住在英格兰Northumbrian地区的名为Adam Telfer的人繁育出了Hemp,并一直养育着他。
Hemp的妈妈是一只带有坚韧的眼神且性格沉默寡言的黑色狗,Hemp的爸爸是一只目光无神,但
拥有优良的天性、活泼性格的黑白三色的狗。
Hemp是一只体力充沛,敏锐的工作狗。Hemp一生产有200多个孩子。
从外观上,Hemp成为Northumbrian type(诺斯安布赖恩 类型)的缩图-----中型体形,中长毛,
基本没有白色的边境牧羊犬。

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Wiston Cap Type
韦斯顿 盖普  类型

    This type developed from J.M. Wilson’s dog, Cap, through Jock Richardson’s outstanding trial and stud dog, Wiston Cap.  Also rough coated, these dogs tend to be larger, with big, blocky heads and much more white trim – collars, chests, forelegs, etc.  They typically have tremendous natural outruns and biddable natures.

这个类型的狗是由J.M. Wilson的叫Cap的狗与Jock Richardson的出名的竞技犬及种犬 Wiston Cap发展下来的。
这种类型狗也是长毛的,体型倾向于往大的方向发展,拥有又大又宽的头脸,脖子、胸部、
前腿有更多的白色毛。
这种类型狗的典型特点是拥有巨大的放牧本能和服从性。

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Nap Type
 奈普 类型
    Of the four types of Border Collies, the Nap Type is the only smooth coated one.  The name comes from a dog called Whitehope Nap.  These dogs are strong, fast and powerful.  Their coat is short, but has an undercoat to act as insulation from cold or heat. Many have longer legs and shorter bodies, making their outline more square than the other types.  Because of their short coats, speed, and power, many Americans used them to work cattle on large ranches in the Southwest.

在四中类型的边境牧羊犬当中,奈普类型是唯一的短毛边境牧羊犬。
类型名称来自于一只叫Whitehope Nap的狗。
这种类型的狗十分强壮,速度快且体力充沛。
他们的毛虽然短,但还是有内层绒毛起隔热作用,抵御寒冷和酷暑。
大部分这种类型的狗是长腿的,身材短小,所以看起来与另外3种比有点四四方方的感觉。
因为短毛、速度、体力,他们多在美国西南部的大农场里做牧牛工作。

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Herdman’s Tommy Type
赫德曼 汤米 类型
    The last type is named after a Hemp grandson, Herdman’s Tommy.  Three of the four main breeding lines to Hemp go back through Tommy.  Physically, Tommy was a medium-sized dog with a lot of bone.  His rough coat was black and white with tan markings.  This type is known for their good nature, power and strong-headedness.

最后的第四中类型是用Hemp的孙子Herdman’s Tommy的名字命名的。
一直到Hemp时代的4种主要繁殖系统中3个是通过Tommy结合在一起(???)
体型上Tommy是中型的,但骨量大黑白色的长毛上点缀有棕褐色斑点。
这种类型边境牧羊犬以他的好性格、力量、聪明的头脑而取得人们的信任。

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