Border Collie Breed Information
by Kelly Whiteman
由Kelly Whiteman 编写
由 黑白子 翻译
Border Collies originated in the border area between Scotland and England. Often called the world’s premiere sheepherding dogs, Border Collies are renowned for their ability to move sheep in a silent and controlled manner, all at the will of their masters. Border Collies control stock by using their “eye,” which has been described as “the ability to control stock by staring at them in a fixed and steady manner.” Although their history is unrecorded, it is commonly accepted that they developed from crosses between the Roman drover dogs and the progenitors of the Finnish Spitz. As time went on, the dogs were also crossed with other working and sporting breeds, including beardies, setters, pointers and sight hounds.
Sporting breed records indicate that certain lines of pointers worked differently in the days when birds such as grouse and partridge were hunted on foot with nets, rather than with guns. Like modern-day dogs, these particular lines were able to point to where a covey of birds was hiding in the underbrush. But instead of flushing the prey, the dogs would circle around the perimeter of the covey, indicating to the hunters exactly where to lay their net to capture the birds. It seems likely that Border Collies inherited not only their “eye”, but also the uncanny ability to know how far off the perimeter they need to stay in order to not disturb their “flock” from these early hunting dogs.
Border Collies have traditionally been bred solely for working ability. Because of the difference in terrain between the English lowlands and the Scottish highlands, farmers raised different breeds of sheep based upon their locality. The type of stock and the surrounding topography led to different physical attributes being required for the dogs to be efficient workers. For example, to survive in the rough hills and rocky crags of the highlands, sheep had to be light and fast. Thus, the good working dogs in the highlands tended to have long legs and lean bodies. In contrast, the lowlands could support slower, heavier sheep. To work these large, heavy sheep on gentler land, the dogs did not need as much speed and agility. Instead, they needed a lower center of gravity and enough size to be able to withstand a charge from big, angry ewes defending their lambs. Therefore, the dogs in the lowlands had shorter legs and heavier bodies.
So, even though the dogs were bred for working ability (as opposed to being bred for “looks”), recognizable physical types evolved. In her classic treatise, Key Dogs from the Border Collie Family, Sheila Grew identified four individual types within the Border Collie breed. The types are divided by physical looks, but general working style and temperament also seem related to type. She called them: 1) Northumbrian type; 2) Wiston Cap type; 3) Nap type; and 4) Herdman’s Tommy type.
论文“Key Dogs from the Border Collie Family”里把边境牧羊犬分为4个类型。
1）Northumbrian type ----- 诺斯安布赖恩 类型
2）Wiston Cap type -----维斯顿 盖普 类型
3）Nap type ----- 奈普 类型
4）Herdman’s Tommy type ----- 赫德曼 汤米 类型
Almost all present-day Border Collies can trace their pedigrees back to a dog known as
Old Hemp. Hemp was born in 1894, bred and owned by Adam Telfer, who lived in the
Northumbrian region of England. Hemp was a cross between a very strong-eyed, black ***
with a reticent temperament and a black and white tri-colored dog with loose eye and
a good natured, outgoing temperament. Hemp was a powerful, keen worker who sired over
200 puppies. Physically, Hemp was the epitome of the Northumbrian type: medium-sized
with a rough coat and very little white trim.
从外观上，Hemp成为Northumbrian type（诺斯安布赖恩 类型）的缩图-----中型体形，中长毛，
Wiston Cap Type
韦斯顿 盖普 类型
This type developed from J.M. Wilson’s dog, Cap, through Jock Richardson’s outstanding trial and stud dog, Wiston Cap. Also rough coated, these dogs tend to be larger, with big, blocky heads and much more white trim – collars, chests, forelegs, etc. They typically have tremendous natural outruns and biddable natures.
这个类型的狗是由J.M. Wilson的叫Cap的狗与Jock Richardson的出名的竞技犬及种犬 Wiston Cap发展下来的。
Of the four types of Border Collies, the Nap Type is the only smooth coated one. The name comes from a dog called Whitehope Nap. These dogs are strong, fast and powerful. Their coat is short, but has an undercoat to act as insulation from cold or heat. Many have longer legs and shorter bodies, making their outline more square than the other types. Because of their short coats, speed, and power, many Americans used them to work cattle on large ranches in the Southwest.
Herdman’s Tommy Type
赫德曼 汤米 类型
The last type is named after a Hemp grandson, Herdman’s Tommy. Three of the four main breeding lines to Hemp go back through Tommy. Physically, Tommy was a medium-sized dog with a lot of bone. His rough coat was black and white with tan markings. This type is known for their good nature, power and strong-headedness.