边境牧羊犬标准 ·

边牧的毛色基因遗传,内有边牧色彩实图

The Border Collie
边境牧羊犬
Coat colors
毛色

边境牧羊犬通常被认为是黑白相间的狗,但真相并非如此。边境牧羊犬的毛色可以有多种颜色,有些是兰色斑点,有些有三种颜色。黑白相间的毛色是最具代表性的,但一条黑白相间毛色的边境牧羊犬可能携带隐性的各种颜色的基因。 记住这一点是很重要的,当有些颜色是不平常甚至是稀缺的时候,饲养员“设定”狗的毛色并不是一种娱乐。性格,健康状况,品种特征都是繁殖者应该注意的特征。有时候会有不同的颜色偶然出现,或者经由繁殖者计划出现。

边境牧羊犬的毛色是如何遗传的? 动物(犬科动物或其它动物)从它们的父母处遗传大量特征。这些遗传由基因控制。 后代从它们的父母中同等地获得遗传基因。每条狗的每个由基因控制的属性特征携带两个基因,一个来自于父亲,一个来自于母亲。同理,父亲和母亲也同样在它们的每个属性特征中携带来自祖父母的两个遗传基因。虽然狗的每个属性特征含有两个基因,但仅有一个遗传自父亲,也仅有一个遗传自母亲,这就是为什么我们能获得多样性的原因。

每个基因有一个显性因子和一个隐性因子。 举例而言,一条狗从它的父亲处遗传纯黑毛色的基因,从它的母亲处遗传纯红色的基因。因为纯黑色基因是显性的,纯红色的基因是隐性的, 纯黑色基因会遮盖住纯红色基因,因而狗会是纯黑的毛色。 但这条狗繁衍后代时,每只小狗将只获得其中一个基因--- 有些可能遗传纯黑色的基因,有些可能遗传隐性的纯红色的基因。 基因控制各种品性特征,比如毛色,耳朵姿态,毛的长度,眼睛的颜色,等等。 四个小狗可能会互相很不相同,有的可能有尖耳朵,有的是短耳朵,有的是长毛,有的是平滑的毛发。最具吸引人的则是边境牧羊犬的毛色。 有的幼崽可能是黑白相间的,有的可能是红灰和黑斑点的,有的可能是蓝色和浅黄色的。

毛色并非由一个基因决定,而是由几个基因决定,每个基因有一个显性因子和一个隐性因子。 下面的表格显示了决定边境牧羊犬毛色的四种基因,并且定义了每个基因的显性和隐性因子。

基因 显性 隐性

基因1 纯黑 纯红

基因2 非浅黄 浅黄

基因3 不变浅 变浅

基因4 蓝灰或红灰带黑斑点 非‘蓝灰或红灰带黑斑点’。

因此,决定纯色的基因有一个黑色的显性因子和一个红色的隐性因子。决定是不是有斑点的基因有一个显示斑点的显性基因和一个不显示斑点的隐性基因。  

举例说明纯色基因的遗传  
比如一条携带两个黑色基因的纯毛公狗与一条携带黑色和红色两个基因的母狗交配的情况。公狗和母狗均显示黑白毛色,因为母狗的红色隐性基因被她的显性黑色基因掩盖了。四个后代都遗传了两个纯色的基因,一个来自父亲一个来自母亲,但是来自父亲或母亲的哪一个基因则是自由选择的。基因遗传的比例显示如下。每条小狗都从父亲那遗传黑色基因,因为它们的父亲只有黑色基因。它们从母亲那遗传要么黑色基因要么红色基因,都是百分之五十的机率。所有的后代都显示黑白毛色,因为黑色显性基因掩盖了红色的隐性基因。不可能分辨出哪个后代携带了红色隐性基因,因此都象它们的父母一样显示的是黑白毛色。  

如果一条狗携带两个黑色基因与另一条携带两个红色基因的狗交配,它们的后代也将显示黑白色,因为它们都从父亲那遗传了黑色基因(父亲只有两个黑色基因可以提供)。然后,所有的后代都将携带一个隐性基因(红色基因)遗传自母亲(母亲只有红色基因可以提供)。从表面上看不出这些后代是否携带红色基因,但如果知道它们的母亲是红色的,则他们一定携带一个隐性红色基因。  

如果一条狗携带了一个黑色和一个红色的基因,与另一条同样携带一个黑色和一个红色基因的狗交配。后代的毛色显示的比例如下图。一条狗将显示红色,因为它携带两个红色隐性基因,一个来自它的父亲,一个来自它的母亲。其它的后代将显示黑白颜色,尽管会有两条狗各自携带一个红色隐性基因。其中一条狗将携带两个黑色基因显示黑白色,与另外携带一个黑色基因和一个红色基因的狗显示一样的毛色。  

如果一条狗携带一个黑色基因和一个红色基因与另一条携带两个红色基因的狗交配,后代毛色的显示机率如图。所有的后代将携带隐性的红色基因(它们的母亲只能遗传这个给它们)。两个后代将显示红色,因为它们携带两个红色隐性基因,另外两个将显示黑白色尽管它们携带一个隐藏的隐性红色基因。  

如果一条狗携带两个显性的黑色基因与同样携带两个显性的黑色基因的狗交配,那么所有的后代将显示黑白色。因为父母只能提供显性的黑色基因给后代,没有隐性的红色基因。然后,没有可能分辨一条黑白色的狗是否携带隐性的红色基因,因为显性基因的掩盖特性总是把隐性的红色基因藏起来了。  

如果一条狗携带两个隐性红色基因与一条同样的携带两个隐性红色基因的狗交配,所有的后代将显示红色。因为父母只能提供隐性红色基因给后代。没有显性黑色基因遮盖隐性红色基因。  
虽然以上的例子只显示纯色的毛色是如何遗传的,但其它毛色的遗传也是相同的方式,这四个基因是决定我们看到边境牧羊犬毛色的主要因素。 边境牧羊犬的颜色 下面的表格显示个体如何从父母身上遗传这四个基因,并影响边境牧羊犬的毛色的。  

Black/white黑/白 

黑/白色
IMG_2071

This is the most common color. As with all other colors the preferred pattern has a white blaze that continues over the top of the head into the white area in the neck, a white end of the tail, white fore legs up till the elbow and white socks on the hind legs.
  这是最常见的颜色。所有颜色边境牧羊犬的首选斑纹样式都应该是——头部有一块白斑,从头顶延伸到脖子的白色区域,有白色的尾尖,白色的前腿(前腿上的白色向上至肘部)和好像穿着白袜子的后腿。

记住,狗携带每个基因的两个复制因子,一个遗传自父亲,一个遗传自母亲。 黑白边境牧羊犬 这种颜色很常见,也常被人认为是真正的边境牧羊犬的颜色。事实上,这种边境牧羊犬是一种白色的狗配有片块的纯色(有时候被斑纹或稀色中断)。这种纯色被认为是遗传性的斑点。经典的边境牧羊犬标志是“爱尔兰斑点”。 黑色是纯色中的显性基因,因此一条黑白相间的狗有可能掩盖了隐性的红色基因。如果一条狗携带了一个显性基因,那么仅靠看就无法分辨它是否携带隐性基因,因为显性基因掩盖了隐性基因.

 

Swift has less white than the classically marked dogs seen above. His white blaze is visible, but it is very narrow and also the white in his neck is less than with the classical pattern. He is also mottled on his legs and nose.
  Swift身上的白色比我们看到的上面两只有着典型斑纹的边境牧羊犬要少。它脸上的白斑是显而易见的,但是非常狭窄,而且它脖子上的白色也比典型样式少。它的腿和鼻子也是杂色的。

The black on Taz' head (in herding position) is even larger than with Swift. The blaze is completely disappeared and the white in her neck is limited to a white spot. She has however a white chest, white feet and a white end of her tail.
  Taz'(放牧的姿势)头上的黑色甚至比Swift还要多。它的脸上完全没有白斑,而且它脖子上的白色非常有限,几乎就是一个白点。但是,它胸前的毛是白色的,脚和尾尖也是白色的。

A dog can also have more white. Kellin has far more white than classically marked dogs. Unconnected spots are also present and the shoulders and the area around one eye is entirely white.
  边境牧羊犬身上也可能有更多的白色。Kellin身上的白色已远远超过了有着典型斑纹的边境牧羊犬,不仅有一些不连贯的白点,而且肩部与一只眼睛的周围完全是白色的

 

巧克力(褐)/白

Chocolate (Brown)/white
巧克力(褐)/白色

Especially in the United States this colour is called Red/white. In Australia Red/white is a completely different colour; red/yellow and white. Since both colors are genetically quite different and the colour on this colour is genetically similar to (chocolate) brown in other breeds the term (chocolate) brown is probably a better description.

  在美国这种颜色被叫做红/白色。而在澳大利亚,红/白色是一种完全不同的颜色——红/黄和白色。因为这两种颜色的基因颇为不同,但却都与(巧克力)褐色的基因相似,所以用(巧克力)褐色来描述,可能要更好一些。

红色的纯色基因是隐性的,因此显示红色的狗一定携带两个隐性红色纯色基因。也就是说,它的双亲均至少携带一个红色隐性纯色基因。 红色边境牧羊犬所指的和其实棕色或深赤褐色的改良品种是一样的。红色在阳光下有变浅的倾向。红色的狗有浅色的眼睛和深赤褐色的鼻子

aquera has a quite dark chocolate brown coat, rather typical for this colour.
  Vaquera有一身黑巧克力(深褐)色的被毛,是这种毛色的典型例子。

Miros has a chocolate brown coat with tan markings. In the US she would be called "Red tri".
  Miros有一身巧克力(褐)色带棕黄色斑纹的被毛。在美国,她将被称为“三色红”。

 

黄/白(红/白)

Yellow/white (Red/white)
黄/白色(红/白色)

When the synthesis of eumelanin is completely suppressed and only the phaeomelanin pigments are present the dog has a red-brown or red-yellow colour. A large variation in shades can be found, so many names exist for this colour: Australian red, cream, blond, yellow, lemon. Considering the genetic background and the comparable colour in other breeds yellow (extension yellow) is probably the best description.
  当eumelanin(可能是指黑色素)合成被完全抑制,只有phaeomelanin(可能是指非黑色素)存在,边境牧羊犬就呈现出红褐或红黄的颜色。这种色调有非常大的变化,因此有许多名字都是指这种颜色:澳洲红、奶油色、金色、黄色和柠檬色。就遗传背景来说,黄色(是一个范围,包括与黄色调相仿的颜色)大概是最好的描述。(另外,巧克力/褐色在美国也被叫做红色,因此用黄色来描述也更准确一些)。

We met Cork in the Western corner of Wales. He is a sturdy dog with a quite dark shade of this colour. Cork works in a herding training centre.
  我们在威尔士的西部见到了Cork。它是一只健壮的边境牧羊犬,被毛的黄/红色相当深。Cork在一家畜牧培训中心工作。

Fly has a very pale shade and was described as 'blond' or 'cream' by her breeder. Especially this red/yellow colour shows a lot of variation in darker and paler shades. Possibly the coat colour of Fly and Blaze is diluted by a modifier gene.
  Fly被毛的颜色很浅,它的饲养人称这种颜色为“金色”或“奶油色”。而且这种红/黄色在明暗上有很多变化。Fly和Blaze的毛色变浅,可能是基因改变的缘故。
Blaze has almost the same colour as Fly has. At this moment her fuzzy puppy coat makes the colour look even paler. On the picture she is standing next to Fly, which demonstrates them having a similar colour.
  Blaze有着与Fly几乎相同的毛色。此刻它幼嫩的茸毛使被毛的颜色看上去更浅了。从它站在Fly旁边的这张照片上,我们可以清楚地看到它们有着相似的毛色。

丁香色

Lilac/white

The chocolate brown colour can be diluted into a 'lilac' colour.

丁香/白色
        巧克力棕色的颜色可以被稀释成一个'丁香'的颜色。

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蓝/白

Blue/white
蓝/白色

The black colour is diluted and is now a greyish blue colour, beautifully described by the British as "Slate". The same dilution can occur with the chocolate brown colour and is usually called lilac.
  黑色变浅,成为了现在的灰蓝色,英国人将其极为恰当地描述为“鼠灰色”。巧克力(褐)色也同样会有变浅的情况,我恩通常把那种颜色叫淡紫色。(淡紫色比较少,没有找到图片)

Blue shows the beautiful and quite rare blue/white colour. The colour is rather difficult to capture on film. By placing a black and white dog next to a blue/white one the colour is displayed more clearly.
  Blue展示了美丽而罕见的蓝/白色。这种颜色很难在照片上表现出来。如果将一只黑白色的边境牧羊犬放置在蓝/白色的边境牧羊犬旁边,这种颜色的差异会显示得更清楚。

蓝色来自于稀色基因。这两个因子是非稀释(显性)和稀释(隐性)。稀释不是一种颜色而是逐渐减少纯色(或黑色或红色)的强度。这也不同于蓝灰色狗—这种蓝灰基因很不相同,我们将在以后介绍。 为了显示蓝色,狗必须携带两个隐性稀释基因—分别来自它的父母。因此,它的双亲必须要么是黑色或红色并且携带稀释基因或者本身是蓝色或浅紫色(稀释的红色)

貂 色

Sable
貂色

This color looks a bit like a dark Red/white, but is quite different.
  这种颜色看起来和暗红/白色有点儿相似,但其实有很大的不同。
The term sable describes not a coat colour, but a pattern. The individual hairs have a dark tip and a tan base. Some hairs have larger dark tips than others, resulting in a sort of blending effect from light (tan) to dark. Because sable is controlled on the same gene as tricolor and saddle these patterns cannot be combined.
  “貂色”一词描述的并不是一种毛色,而是一种样式。这种独特的被毛以棕黄色为底色,毛发的尖端有一些黑色。有些毛发尖端的黑色比其他地方的要广(多)一些,从而产生一种由明到暗(由棕到黑)的混色效果。因为貂色与三色受控于同一基因,所以这两种斑纹样式不能合二为一。

Numa(所有者和照片:G. Abbink,Van de Schapenhoeve犬舍)

 

三 色

Tricolour
三色
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The tricolour - also called tanpoint - is not a coat colour, but a pattern. On the edges of the coloured patches (in specific places such as above the eyes, on the cheeks, on the shoulder, on the front and inner side of the elbow and the fore leg, on the front and the inner side of the knee and lower hind leg and below the tail) the base colour is replaced by a brown tan colour. Because this pattern is controlled at the same gene as sable and saddle pattern these cannot be combined. Tricolour can be found with all eumelanin colours.
  三色也被称为“tanpoint”(棕黄色的毛发尖端),它不是一种毛色,而是一种斑纹样式。在色块的边缘处(在一些特定的地方,如眼睛的上方、脸颊、肩部、前腿及其肘部的前面和内侧、膝关节的前面和内侧、下后肢和尾尖),边境牧羊犬毛发的基色被一种棕黄色所取代。非三色是显性因子,因此如果狗要显示三色必须携带两个三色隐性基因。因为这种斑纹样式与貂色受控于同一基因,所以它们不能合二为一。三色中具有所有带黑色素的颜色。
三色的程度很不相同。 这种狗有一个显性的黑色的基因在纯色基因中(另一个基因则未知,可能是红色,可能是黑色)。还有两个隐性的三色基因,因为它显示的就是三色的标志。所有的三色狗在屁股处环绕着一些浅色的毛。

Spike (owner J. Westendorp) is a powerful dog with typical tricolour markings. His head looks quite dark because he lacks a white blaze and is mottled on his nose. His tail is a bit high on this picture because he was challenged by another dog.
  Spike(所有者:J. Westendorp)是一只有着典型三色斑纹的强壮的边境牧羊犬。它的头部看起来相当黑,因为它没有白色的头斑,而且鼻子也是花的。这张照片中它的尾巴翘得有点高,是因为受到了另一只狗的挑衅。

Gayle has typical tricolour markings which are a bit smaller than Spike's. A white blaze and different ears give her a different look. Gayle is a passionate agility dog.
  Gayle具有典型的三色标记,但是比Spike的斑纹要少些。白色的头斑和与众不同的耳朵让它有种不同的面貌。Gayle是一只激情敏捷的边境牧羊犬。
  (上文提到过的有着巧克力带棕色斑点被毛的Miros和灰蓝色带棕色斑点被毛的Violet也是三色的边境牧羊犬。Violet的棕斑不像其他边牧那样犀利,但是在眼睛上方、脸颊、后腿这些位置还是很明显的。)

Blue has a blue merle coat with tanpoint markings. His colour must be described as blue merle tri; something most stud books cannot handle (yet).
  Blue有一身蓝山鸟色带棕色斑点的被毛。它的毛色被描述为蓝山鸟三色;大部分种犬名册中记录的重要犬只是不能被抚弄的。(这句不知道是不这样译,大家可以探讨下,飘走~)。

 

马鞍斑纹

Saddle pattern
马鞍斑纹

This pattern looks a bit like the tricolour (or tanpoint), but has a lot more tan in it. Also the base colour is limited to a saddle like pattern on the back and the markings on the head are not specific and uniform as with a tricolour.
  这种斑纹样式看起来有点像三色(或tanpoint),但是被毛上的棕黄色要更多一些。基色有限,背部有马鞍状的斑纹,头部的斑纹为比较随意的三色(没有具体或一致的样式)。

This dog has a rather large saddle on his back, but very little dark markings on his head. He is competing in (English style) obedience.
  这只边境牧羊犬背部的马鞍状斑纹相当大,但它头上几乎没有黑色斑纹。它正在参加服从比赛(英式)。

The dog seen above is standing next to a little bit darker dog. The black is more outspoken and also the head shows a darker pattern. Both dogs come from the Sealight kennels that are well known for these colour patterns.
  上面看到的边牧正站在一只被毛有点黑的边牧旁边。身上的黑色非常明显,并且头上也有黑色的斑纹。两只边境牧羊犬都来自马鞍斑纹十分出名的Sealight犬舍。

 

蓝山鸟色

Blue Merle
蓝山鸟色

The merle colours were very common in the early days of the breed. They were so common that at a certain point in time breeders avoided them for being too common. This has gone too far resulting in merle being quite a rare pattern these days.
  在早期的边境牧羊犬中,山鸟色曾经非常普遍。它们太普遍了,以至于有一段时间饲养者们因此而避免繁殖它们。由于没有把握好度(太过火),导致今天山鸟色变成了一种相当罕见的斑纹样式。
Breeding merles requires a bit of knowledge of genetics. When two merle dogs are mated about 25% of the pups will be homozygous for Merle (so called 'double merles'). These dogs are almost white and/or have very pale markings. Chances are that they are not even born. Pups that are actually born are often blind, deaf and/or sterile. Allowing such dogs to be born is not generally acceptable. Mating a merle to a non-merle already produces 50% merles, so breeding merles is not very difficult.
  繁殖山鸟色的边境牧羊犬需要有点遗传方面的知识。当两只山鸟色的边牧交配后,约25%的幼犬将纯为山鸟色(也称为“双重山鸟色”)。这些幼犬几乎全白,(或)有非常浅的斑纹。它们甚至没有出生的机会。事实上,它们出生后常常是瞎的、聋的、(或)不育的。所以,大家一般不容许这种狗出生。一只山鸟色边牧与一只非山鸟色的边牧交配后,出生的幼犬有50%是山鸟色的,因此繁殖山鸟色的边牧并不是非常困难。
  (上面介绍过的三色边牧Blue就属于这个类哦。)

Tac has classical markings with a balanced merle pattern. Contrary to Blue (see above) who has blue eyes, Tac views the world with beautiful brown eyes; both eye colours are permitted in merles.
  Tac有着经典的边境牧羊犬斑纹样式,其山鸟色的斑纹非常和谐。与蓝眼睛的Blue(见上)不同,Tac是用一双漂亮的褐色眼睛来看这个世界的;在山鸟色边牧中,这两种眼睛的颜色都是被允许的。

Gwen has a darker merle pattern. She also has brown eyes, with a blue spot in her left eye. The merle patterns also influence the eye colours.
  Gwen的山鸟色斑纹要暗一些。它同样有着褐色的双眼,但左眼中有一个蓝色的小点。山鸟色斑纹同样影响眼睛的颜色。

 "Spin it again Luke" (owner and photo: Yvette Zmaila) has a rather coarse merle pattern on his body, but a much finer pattern on his head. His white blaze will become a bit smaller in the future and his nose will be darker.
  “Spin it again Luke”(所有者和照片:Yvette Zmaila)身上的山鸟色斑纹非常粗劣,但它头上的就要好上许多。它白色的头斑将来会变得小一点儿,而它的鼻子会变得黑一点儿。

PS:Double Merles

Jelle has the typical properties of a "double merle": a mostly white coat, light merle markings, hard of hearing, poor-sighted and abnormally small eyes.
  Jelle具有典型性质的“双重山鸟色”:几乎全白的被毛,极浅的山鸟色斑纹,听觉困难,弱视和异常的小眼睛。
Jelle is neutered and lives a quiet life, and has hardly any problems with his handicaps.
  Jelle绝育后过着平静的生活,它身体上的缺陷几乎没有带来任何问题。

 

红山鸟色

Red Merle
红山鸟色

Blue merle is not a common colour these days, but red merle is really quite rare. The base colour chocolate brown is already pretty rare, so a combination with merle is seldomly seen. In order to produce red merle pups both parents must be chocolate brown or they must carry the gene and one of the parents must be merle.
  在今天,蓝山鸟色是一种不常见的颜色,而红山鸟色实在是相当罕见。因为巧克力(褐)色的被毛底色已经相当稀少,所以结合了山鸟色的红山鸟色就更难看到了。为了生出红山鸟色的边牧幼犬,父母双方必须都是巧克力(褐)色,或者它们均携带该基因,且其中一方必须为山鸟色。

Breeding merles can result in health problems when one doesn't watch out. The simple rules for this can be found at Blue Merle and in the genetics article mentioned below.
  一不留意,繁育山鸟色边牧就会导致健康问题。关于这方面的简单规则会在“蓝山鸟色”和下面有关遗传学的文章中提到。

 

Koda (owner and photo: Lonnie Olson) has rather dark patterns on his body and very light merle markings on his head. The chocolate brown base colour makes him an unusual appearance. Koda is working as a sled dog.
  Koda(所有者和图片:Lonnie Olson)身上的斑纹很深,但是头上的山鸟色斑纹却很浅。巧克力(褐)色的被毛底色使它具有不同寻常的外观。Koda正作为一只雪橇犬在工作。

 

貂色山鸟色

Sable Merle
貂色山鸟色

Although it is genetically possible to produces a sable merle, it is rather difficult in practice. The pattern is only visible in the puppy coat. After the dog has his final coat the Merle pattern is almost impossible to see. To prevent these dogs from being mated to other merles it is advisable not to mix sable and merle.
  虽然通过遗传是有可能繁育出貂色山鸟色的边境牧羊犬的,但这种设想很难实践。此斑纹样式只能在幼犬的被毛上看到,在边牧长出它最后的被毛之后,就几乎不可能见到了。要避免这些犬只与其他山鸟色边牧交配,最好不要使貂色和山鸟色的边牧杂交。

 

特殊斑纹

Special markings
特殊斑纹
Some names are used for variations on the colors (or patterns) described above.
  有些名字被用来表示上面描述过的颜色(或图案)的变化。

  White face
  白头

Not a real color or pattern, but used for a quite white marking on the head.
  不是一种真正的颜色或斑纹样式,而是用以表示一种头部相当白的斑纹。
  Extremely white!
  极白

They come even whiter; in the extremely white Border Collie no or hardly any colored markings are present. The dog in this picture only has black ears and a black spot on the base of his tail; he is a perfect illustration for the sw-gene.
  它们变得更加白;在极白边境牧羊犬身上没有或几乎没有任何颜色标记。这张照片上的边牧只有耳朵和尾巴上的一个点儿是黑色的;它是sw基因的一个完美的例证。
  斑驳

This pattern consists of freckles in the white parts of the coat. Can be combined with all coat colors. The pattern is also called Ticked.
  这种斑纹样式由被毛白色部分的斑点组成,可以与所有的毛色相结合,也叫“Ticked(打点)”。

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